The SORRAIA MUSTANG STUDBOOK (SMS) has been established to record available data of as many Sorraia-type mustangs as possible, keep track of these horses, and encourage selective breeding for this type, as a means to help preserve the subspecies. The SMS does not rival any other mustang registry, and does register horses strictly on phenotype, regardless of the BLM Herd Management Areas they were captured in, or other mustang registries they may have already been registered with.

At this point, free registration is available and consists of data-recording only; no papers issued. Issueing of registration certificates optional, at $30.-per horse.

If you are a mustang owner and feel your horse(s) may qualify, please write to the SMS, sending in five color photographs: 1 direct sideview from each side, 1 front view, 1 headshot directly from one side (if necessary, take forelock out of the way to ensure clear view of profile), at least one shot that clearly shows the front leg stripes; at least 1 of the photos must show dorsal stripe. If applicable, send also BLM number and BLM Herd Management Area incl. state (or registration number of other mustang registry, if the horse does not have a BLM-number), and provide the following data: name, sex, year of birth, height at withers, name and address of owner and phone number. Should the horse have a white marking not recognizable in the photos, please specify, or include close-up photo.

The SMS provides the following divisions for mustangs showing Sorraia characteristics: Permanent, Foundation, and Tentative. Permanent is reserved for mustangs which absolutely resemble the Sorraia horse in color and conformation; Foundation status is for horses which resemble the Sorraia, but lack in minor details, such as a small white marking, or a less than ideal profile; Tentative is for individuals which fall short significantly in one way or another, but can still be expected to make a valuable contribution (i. e. producing horses eligible for Foundation status) because they possess many of the characteristics.

Horses are assessed based on conformation, color, movements if possible, and bloodlines.


Send your application to:




58553 Halver









The purpose of the Sorraia Mustang Studbook is the conservation of those special individuals among America's mustangs which represent in type the indigenous wild horse of southern Iberia, today known as Sorraia horse. Therefore, the Standard of Perfection, and any evaluation of the phenotype of Sorraia Mustangs, must be based solely on the typical conformation, color, and other characteristics of the Sorraia horse:


General: Refined, not coarse or heavy-boned. A horse of long lines and built "uphill".

Size: Approx. 14 to 14,3 hands.

Head: Profile more or less convex – a curved line from poll to nostrils without any indentations. Forehead usually somewhat domed and fairly narrow. Head narrow from front and side view. Face rather long. Small and refined muzzle. Ears of medium length or long, only slightly curved. Eyes set rather high – very large, protruding eyes are atypical.

Neck: Of good length, with a clean throatlatch. Slim in individuals of normal condition, crested in fat individuals, sometimes ewe-necked.

Withers: Prominent and long, reaching far into the back, typically higher than the rear end.

Back: Straight; of medium length; back bone visible in individuals of rather lean condition.

Chest: Narrow from a front view, deep from a side view.

Barrel: Narrow.

Hip/Rump: Rafter-shaped, looking melon-shaped in well-fed horses, protruding hip bones readily showing in lean horses. Hip of medium length, sloping but not dropping. Medium tail set.

Legs: Long, with round, fairly long cannon bones and long pasterns. Hooves are of medium size with tendency toward mule-footedness. Very little, if any, fetlock hair.


Muscling: Long and smooth.


Always grulla or regular dun (no red dun), typically a light or medium shade. Face/muzzle dark, and dark around the eyes. A mealy mouth is not acceptable. Ears are outlined black in front and back, with whitish rim; tipped black on backside, sometimes also striped on backside. Fawn-colored tuft inside ear. Bi-colored mane and tail = the black middle part is fringed by light-colored hair that is often almost white. A dorsal stripe must be present; cobwebbing on forehead, zebra stripes on legs, neck stripes, shoulder stripes, and fishbone markings on the back are all desirable, although not always present. White markings are atypical and undesirable.

Note: Mares of different color, but showing all the other characteristics of the Sorraia, may still be eligible for Foundation or Tentative division.


Finer in texture than northern primitive horses. The forelock is often sparse, sometimes non-existent. The hair structure creates the appearance of stripes ("barring") on neck/chest. Newborn foals often have a zebra-like pattern all over, created by the lay of the hair.



Free, ground-covering, long-strided movements, especially a flowing, lofty trot, noticeable knee action. Great flexibility in neck, spine, and legs. Even when excited, the tail is raised rarely more than level; these horses usually do not raise their tails up perpendicularly, let alone laying them over their rump when excited, like Arabians tend to do.

Sorraia stallion in Portugal with typical conformation, showing the free, ground-covering movement these horses typically have

The typical rafter hip of the Sorraia, visible in animals of medium

and poor condition



Some say the SMS is just a color registry. Is that true?

Nothing could be further from the truth. While it is correct that Sorraias come in grulla and regular dun only (no red duns), the color is only one characteristic that has to be met. Sorraias are of a unique conformation, so for SMS registration, conformation is at least as important as is color. The way a horse moves is also a criteria, as is how it holds its tail.

Is it true that Sorraias originally came in all colors and have been selectively bred to be grullas and duns?

We have to rely here on the work of DR. RUY D'ANDRADE, a well-respected Portuguese scientist. He was the one who discovered the Sorraia in 1920, he was the one who selected those individuals to which all of today's Sorraias go back. According to him, the color of this horse is grulla or dun. He had no intention to create a color breed, or any new breed; his intention was to preserve the Sorraia as a remnant of a truly wild horse population, and the primitive ancestor of the Andalusian/Lusitano horse. Also, it could be proved through DNA tests that the horses he selected actually have a unique status. Chroniclers many centuries before d'Andrade have already and always described the Iberian wild horse as grulla.

So, no - Sorraias never came in all colors. Theirs is the color of the South Iberian wild horse: grulla, resp. dun.

Is it the position of the SMS that there are still mustangs around which are pure Sorraia?

No. After centuries of unrestricted interbreeding in the wild, it would be unresonable to assume for any mustangs to be pure this or pure that. However, mustangs of Sorraia phenotype aren't what they are by chance. The DNA study proved the existence of Sorraia blood among the mustangs, and the fact that many of the Sorraia-type mustangs "breed true", i. e. pass on reliably their characteristics, proves that they aren't just freaks, i. e. similar in phenotype by some chance – they actually must also be similar in genotype.

Here are some reasons why we still have Sorraia-type mustangs:

1) The natural qualities of the Sorraia horses equipped them to survive better in a wild state on the American continent than horses of other origins, at least as far as prairie, semi-desert, and desert regions are concerned – a survival of the fittest.

2) Another reason is that animals of a certain kind, especially primitive ones, will instinctively prefer partners of the same kind to mate with if they have a choice. The vast and remote regions of the American West provided an environment for wild horses that allowed for groups of certain kinds to more or less stay together. This held true until recent times: When the BLM started to take stock and round up the wild horses in their efforts to manage the public lands, they found herds or bands of horses that were similar in type and even in color.

3) The primitive genes may somehow be stronger, because they are Mother Nature's own recipe. Remnant populations of wild animals show a surprising ability to retain their type and color in spite of interbreeding pressure from surrounding domestic animals of the same species. That's why populations of mustangs of a primitive type could have retained their characteristics in spite of some of their interbreeding with other mustangs – there remained a nucleus of horses which still possessed most or all of the characteristics.

By starting breeding programs based on mating Sorraia-type mustangs to Sorraia-type mustangs, the Sorraia genotype will be strengthened and rehabilitated, and other genes will be bred out. Thus, a population of Sorraia Mustangs can be revitalized and reinstated, consisting of horses of good Sorraia phenotype and genotype.

Is the Sorraia-type mustang the only true Spanish mustang, or Spanish type, like some say it is?

The typical Sorraia horse differs in type from the general run of Andalusians and Lusitanos, the Iberian man-made breeds. The latter combine traits of several types of horses, and have been selected toward a certain man-made ideal. However, many Lusitanos and some Andalusians still show Sorraia characteristics. It is only logical though that a mustang which looks like an Andalusian or Lusitano must also be called a Spanish type.

It so happens though that certain characteristics of the Sorraia have been declared by some people as non-Spanish, like the narrow head, ears that are not "hooked", the narrow chest, the medium-length back, the tail that is not set particularly low. It is ignorant and even irresponsible to declare the most original and primitive Iberian horse to be of non-Spanish type. Besides, some of the aforementioned criteria aren't even typical for Spanish horses. In other words, most Andalusians and Lusitanos don't have a particularly low tail set, and they do have a rather narrow head, and many don't have hooked ears.

With all the discussions about what Spanish type is, and all the arguments one way or another, the Sorraia's conformation type provides an objective parameter, a breeding goal, a standard of perfection not formulated by Man, but determined by Mother Nature – by Iberia's natural environment.


(Except for the Permanent horses, the horses listed and shown below are just examples; these are just a fraction of the horses registered,)


P1 Toledo Titmouse

stallion, grullo, born 5-19-2000

Sire: Polvorinho 963, Sorraia;

Dam: Misty Jo SMS F16, by Chato's Shadow SMS T53, out of Mountain Mist SMS F15

Good type, good withers; fair bi-coloring, subconvex profile, decent leg stripes, good shoulder stripes. Tendency for lateral gait.

Breeder: Hardy Oelke, 58553 Halver-Othmaringhausen, Germany

Owner: currently not on record

P2-SS Sundance Sulphur's Rizada

mare, dun, born 1999

Sire: Sampson, SS

Dam: Blossom, SS

Excellent profile, ears, over-all conformation. 14hh as a 2-year-old; very good stripes, dorsal stripe with sawtooth markings, shoulder cross, indistinct fishbone markings set off from dorsal stripe, some cobwebbing, bi-coloring could be stronger.

Breeder: Leo and Kathleen Campbell, Idaho Falls, ID

Owner: Nield, Naylene, Cedar City, UT 84720, 435-865-0454

P3 Unica

mare, grulla, born 6-23-2001

Sire: Polvorinho 963, Sorraia

Dam: Misty Jo SMS F16, by Chato's Shadow SMS T53, out of Mountain Mist SMS F15

Good type, good stripes.

Breeder: Hardy Oelke, 58553 Halver-Othmaringhausen, Germany,

P4 Xácara

mare, grulla, born 5-18-2003

Sire: Saloio 995, Sorraia

Dam: Misty Jo SMS F16, by Chato's Shadow SMS T53, out of Mountain Mist SMS F15

Good type

Breeder: Hardy Oelke, 58553 Halver-Othmaringhausen, Germany,

Owner: Monika Lehmenkühler, Lindlar-Reudenbach, Germany

P5 Chispalita de Mayo

mare, dun, born 5-1-2002

Sire: Silver Bullet SMS F50, Kiger

Dam: Steens Maria SMS F87, Kiger

Excellent type, including convex profile, good color, good bi-coloring, good size.

Breeder: Diane Pinney, Spanish Sage Ranch, P.O. Box 1631, Redmond, OR, 916-717-3755; 541-548-9624,,

P6 Little Spanish Annie

mare, grulla, born 1998

Sire: Montar, Pryor Mountain #PR-45-23-S

Dam: Little Orphan Annie SMS F94, Pryor Mountain.

Good type, although a little stocky: good color, including shoulder stripes, good leg stripes, and bi-coloring; good size.

Breeder: Dale and Daphne Hartman, P.O. Box 453, Lovell, Wyoming 82431, 307-548-6818,

P7 Angelina d’ Oro

mare, dun, born 5-11-2004

Sire: SMS F50 Silver Bullet, Kiger

Dam: SMS F89 Zottara, Steens Mountain

Good color, good size; leg stripes partly reddish instead of black/brown.

Breeder/owner: Spanish Sage Ranch, P.O. Box 1631, Redmond, OR, 916-717-3755; 541-548-9624,,

P8 Sovina’s Zorita

mare, grulla, born 2002

Sire: Sovina 995 (Sorraia)

Dam: Tia F1

Very good type, except profile, which is rather straight. Good bi-coloring, no white.

Breeder: Erin Gray. Owner: Kevin Droski & Lynne Gerard, Box 611, Gore Bay, Ontario P0P 1H0, Canada,

P9 Sora Sonora (KMA 0305-P)

mare, grulla, born 1997

Sire: Kiger's Cherokee Diamond

Dam: Tigress (Kiger of Mount Shasta X Kitten, from Sheepshead HMA, owner Manford Isley)

Good profile; good dorsal stripe; shoulder and neck marks; bi-coloring could be better. Advanced from Foundation Nov. 09, based on conformation and produce. mtDNA-type D1.

Breeder: Manford Isley, Joseph, OR, Owner: Spanish Sage Ranch, P.O. Box 1631, Redmond, OR 916-717-3755; 541-548-0624,,

P10-SMR (yet unnamed)

mare, grulla, born 2006

Sire: Troubleshooter SMR (Appaloosa-colored)

Dam: Mirage F38

Decent stripes. Advanced from Foundation upon inspection in 2009.

mtDNA-type D1

Breeder: Sharron Scheikofsky, 27003 SF Hwy 89, Hot Springs, SD 57747, 605-745-4883


P11 (yet unnamed)

mare, grulla, born 2007

Sire: Chato’s Shadow

Dam: Mountain Mist

Good type. Full sister to Mirage F38.

mtDNA-type D1

Breeder/owner: Sharron Scheikofsky, 27003 SF Hwy 89, Hot Springs, SD 57747, 605-745-4883

P12-K Salamander

stallion, dun, born 2008

Sire: Silver Bullet F50

Dam: Steens Maria F87

Kiger. Good type, good profile, good bi-coloring.

Breeder/owner: Spanish Sage Ranch, P.O. Box 1631, Redmond, OR, 916-717-3755; 541-548-9624,,

P13 Encantara

mare, grulla, 2009

Sire: Altamiro (Sorraia)

Dam: Belina F132

Excellent type, very good dun markings (neck and shoulder stripes).

Breeder/owner: Ravenseyrie Sorraia Mustang Preserve, Kevin Droski & Lynne Gerard, Box 611, Gore Bay, Ontario P0P 1H0, Canada,

P14 Segura

mare, grulla, 2009

Sire: Altamiro (Sorraia)

Dam: Sovina's Zorita P8

Very good type and color.

Breeder/owner: Ravenseyrie Sorraia Mustang Preserve, Kevin Droski & Lynne Gerard, Box 611, Gore Bay, Ontario P0P 1H0, Canada,


F4-K 0732 Eclipse

mare, grulla, born 1996

Sire: wild

Dam: F3-K 0717

Captured 1996 in Kiger HMA

Very good type, although head profile not ideal; some white hair on forehead.

Adopter: Linda Meeh, West Linn, OR

F11 Maggie May

mare, grulla, born 1996

Sire: Kiger Diamond Rio 89007186

Dam: May 91544111, Nevada mustang mare

Good type, although rear end a bit too stocky, okay head profile, no white except few white hairs on forehead, dark face.

Breeder: Dean Parker, Athena, OR, owner: Alan Wernsing, Athena, OR

F38-SMR Mirage

mare, grulla, born 1998

Sire: Chato's Shadow

Dam: Mountain Mist

Some white hairs on forehead. Excellent type; would be Permanent without the white hairs.

Owner/breeder: Sharron Scheikofsky, Box 138, Pringle, SD 57747

F50-K Silver Bullet

stallion, light grullo, born 1999

Sire: Kiger's Diamond Rio

Dam: Kiger Katie

Good profile, very good color, tiny star.

Breeder: Manford Isley, owner: Diane Pinney, Spanish Sage Ranch, P.O. Box 1631, Redmond, OR, 916-717-3755; 541-548-9624,,

F55-Silver Swan (SMR 2478)

mare, grulla, born 1990

Granddaughter of Jack Slade

Dam: Little Mex (?)

14,3 hands. Very small star and very small snip, no other white. Little bi-coloring. Good type, good profile. Gaited. Dam of Bonita and Silver Fox.

Owner: Susan Watt / Black Hills Wild Horse Sanctuary

PO Box 998, Hot Springs, South Dakota 57747, 605-745-7494 or 605-745-5955

F58 Amigo's Smoking Millennium

mare, grulla, born 2-20-2000

Sire: Amigo's Smokin Gun (Kiger X Sulphur cross, now gelded)

Dam: Tia SMS F1-SS 0626

Good conformation; good color and bi-coloring.

Breeder: Erin Gray, Nature's Mustangs, Mulino, OR 97042

Owner: Ronald Castillo, 170 Devilla Trace, Fayettevile, Georgia 30214

F60-K Mountain Evening Mist

mare, grulla, born 2000

Sire: unknown (wild)

Dam: Kiger Mountain Spirit, SMS F44-K

Good color, good stripes, good bi-coloring; good type.

Breeder: Ron and/or Helen Lander, 38491 S. Nowlens Brdg Rd. Molalla, OR 97038

F69-K Kiger's Cherokee Diamond

stallion, dun, born 1991

KMA 0146-W, BLM 91009120. Adopted October 1993 from Kiger Range.

Good type, okay profile, 14,3 hh; no white, some bi-coloring.

Owner: Karisma Kigers, Janet Mendez & Jillian Cook, P.O. Box 1019 Madras, Oregon 97741

F73-K Sorraia Songbird

mare, grulla, born April 2000

Sire: Kiger Medici, BLM 95010733

Dam: Stands With A Fist, BLM 87007135

Good type, looks like she is getting a somewhat con-vex profile; good bi-coloring, thin dorsal stripe, some leg stripes, no white markings

Owner: Kimberly Stachurski, 1201 S. Blaine St., Newberg, OR 97132

F101-K Quicksilver Wind („BubbaDusty“)

stallion, grullo, born 2003

Sire: Silver Bullet SMS F50, Kiger

Dam: Sora Sonora SMS F51, Kiger

Very good type, very good profile. Has star and one white heel, would otherwise be Permanent.

Breeder: Diane Pinney, Spanish Sage Ranch, P.O. Box 1631, Redmond, OR, 916-717-3755; 541-548-9624,,

F 146  K  Nieta de Sombre („Ciente“)

2005 grulla mare, sire: Shelby, by Nieto de Sombre (Kiger Don Sombre x Rubie), out of Kiger Cispa; dam: Bit o’Honey, by Casper (T 23 Steens Kiger Silverado x Kiger Cispa), out of Kiger Sierra Myst (WLM Kiger Geronimo x Kiger Quail). Good Sorraia type with rather straight profile. Breeder: Bill and Sophia Hill, Ohsweken, Ontario, Canada. Owners: Kevin Droski & Lynne Gerard, Box 611, Gore Bay, Ontario P0P 1H0, Canada, resp. 1429 Scotland Road, Gore Bay, Ontario  P0P 1H0,

F162-K Donovan

stallion, grullo, born 2008

Sire: Silver Bullet F50-K, Kiger

Dam: Sora Sonora P9

Kiger stallion. Good type, decent profile, good color, including bi-coloring, decent stripes, weak dorsal. Would be Permanent if it weren't for minimal white on bulb of left hind foot.

Breeder: Spanish Sage Ranch, P.O. Box 1631, Redmond, OR 916-717-3755; 541-548-0624,,

F172 Animado

stallion, grullo, born 2008

Sire: Altamiro (Sorraia)

Dam: Bella F122

Very good type and color. White coronet band on right hind foot, would otherwise easily be Permanent.

Owner/breeder: Ravenseyrie Sorraia Mustang Preserve, Kevin Droski & Lynne Gerard, Box 611, Gore Bay, Ontario P0P 1H0, Canada,

F 185 SMR   Silver Shadow’s Star

2006 grulla mare. Sire: Silver Shadow F 20, dam: Chato’s Star T 54. Good type, no white, somewhat dark in color. Breeder: Sharron Scheikofsky, owner: Petra Masa, Obmettman 1-2, 40822 Mettmann, 02058-87720, 0162-6777399,


Auer, Sandra

Am Grasfeld 6, 85395 Wolfersdorf, Germany

+49-8168-99 70 07 or +49-8752-86 90 57

Caballo de Destinos, Sharron Scheikofsky & Dave Reynolds

RR1, Box 131 A, Hot Springs, SD 57747, 605-745-4883

Home of Silver Shadow SMS F20

Carnahan Ranch

Fort Laramie, WY 82212, 307-837-2917

Dalke, Karen

W 4250 Hoefs Rd, Seymour, WI 54165

Home of Tejo II, Sorraia stallion

Hammer, Jeff & Helena

P.O.Box 582, Tyrone, NM 88065, 505-388-1270

Hartmann, Dale & Daphne

Lovell, WY 82431

Kirk, John & Isa

Plenty Star Spanish & Sorraia Mustangs

P.O. Box 106, Pringle, SD 57773, 605-673-3012

Lander, Ron & Helen

38491 S. Nowlens Brdg. Rd., Molalla, OR 97038,

503-829-8002, or 503-873-6921

Petra Masa

Obmettman 1-2, 40822 Mettmann, Germany, +49-2058-87720

McDonald, Scott & Linda

P.O.Box 141, Ukiah, OR 97880, 541-427-3950

Nield, Naylene

Cedar City, UT 84720

435-865-0454 home, 435-590-2193 cell

Oelke, Hardy

Sorraias and Sorraia Mustangs

Othmaringhausen, 58553 Halver, Germany, +49-2353-2304

Olson, Sheri & Mike, „Soul of Sorraia“

8501 Red Fox Rd, Cheyenne, WY 82009


Spanish Sage Ranch, Diane Pinney

P.O. Box 1631, Redmond, OR

916-717-3755, 541-548-9624

Home of Silver Bullet, SMS F50

Susan Watt / Black Hills Wild Horse Sanctuary

605-745-7494 or 605-745-5955
PO Box 998, Hot Springs, South Dakota 57747

Leitner, Manuela

Toelzer Str. 16, 83703 Gmund am Tegernsee, Germany

Jeanie Langley, Kittyhawk Kigers and Mustangs

26591 Ferguson, Junction City, OR 97448


Lynne Gerard & Kevin Droski, Ravenseyrie

Box 611, Gore Bay, Ontario P0P 1H0, Canada

Home of Altamiro, Sorraia stallion

Ealy, Anastasia

RN Sangre de Cristo Ranch HC 65, Box 203, Chamisal, NM 87521